Sunday, 8 October 2017

Chapter 4: Directing

A.        Short Answer Question

1.      Define Directing. 
Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability.

2.      Mention the four elements of directing? 
Four elements of directing are:
a.       Supervision
b.      Communication
c.       Motivation
d.      Leadership

3.    Define Supervision.
            It implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work& workers.

4.    What is Communication in organisation?
Communication incorporates the concept of transfer information and exchange of messages, ideas, and understanding between people for the purpose of achieving common objectives.

5.    What is Motivation?


It means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with passion to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.

6.     Define Leadership.


It may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.

7.    What is Span of Management?


It is the number of subordinates that a manager directs and supervises. The number of subordinates varies from manager to manager. It is also called span of control and span of supervision.

8.     What is effective communication?


            Effective communication helps in molding attitudes and building up employees’ morale.   It improves managerial efficiency and ensures cooperation of the staff.

9.     What is informal Communication?


            It is formed and maintained by social relationship rather than the formal reporting relationship. The most type of this communication is grapevine

Explanatory type question

1. Differences between Direction / Supervising


Directing (Wide)

Supervising (Narrow)

It includes motivation, communication, supervision, training & leadership.

It is only one of the elements of direction.

Direction is generally at top level.

It is restricted to the lower level management.

Generally, direction is related to supervision which is the intermediate link between the workers and management
He has to deal, guide and lead workers directly under his commands.

Direction being at the top level, formulates polices and takes important decision
Supervision at lower level only for implementation.
Financial & non financial incentives.
It cannot provide incentives but if can only recommend rewards in special case.

Leads the efforts of medium and lower Level executives.

Efforts of employee under his commands.


2. What are the important characteristics of directing?


      Direction has got following characteristics:

  1. Pervasive Function - Directing is required at all levels of organization. Every manager provides guidance and inspiration to his subordinates.

  1. Continuous Activity - Direction is a continuous activity as it continuous throughout the life of organization.

  1. Human Factor - Directing function is related to subordinates and therefore it is related to human factor. Since human factor is complex and behaviour is unpredictable, direction function becomes important.

  1. Creative Activity - Direction function helps in converting plans into performance. Without this function, people become inactive and physical resources are meaningless

  1. Executive Function - Direction function is carried out by all managers and executives at all levels throughout the working of an enterprise, a subordinate receives instructions from his superior only.
3. What are the important principles in direction?


1.      Delegate Function - Direction is supposed to be a function dealing with human beings. Human behaviour is unpredictable by nature and conditioning the people’s behaviour towards the goals of the enterprise is what the executive does in this function. Therefore, it is termed as having delicacy

2.      It Initiates Actions - Directions is the function which is the starting point of the work performance of subordinates. It is from this function the action takes place; subordinates understand their jobs and do according to the instructions laid. Whatever are plans laid, can be implemented only once the actual work starts. It is there that direction becomes beneficial. 

3.      It Integrates Efforts - Through direction, the superiors are able to guide, inspire and instruct the subordinates to work. For this, efforts of every individual towards accomplishment of goals are required. It is through direction the efforts of every department can be related and integrated with others.

4.      Means of Motivation - Direction function helps in achievement of goals. A manager makes use of the element of motivation here to improve the performances of subordinates.

5.      It Provides Stability - Stability and balance in concern becomes very important for long term sun survival in the market. Stability is very important since that is an index of growth of an enterprise. Therefore a manager can use of all the four traits in him so that performance standards can be maintained. 

6.      Coping up with the changes - It is a human behaviour that human beings show resistance to change. Adaptability with changing environment helps in sustaining planned growth and becoming a market leader. 

7.      Efficient Utilization of Resources - Direction finance helps in clarifying the role of every subordinate towards his work. The resources can be utilized properly only when less of wastages, duplication of efforts, overlapping of performances, etc. doesn’t take place.

4. What are the Factors that determining the Span of Supervision? 

Following are the factors that determining the Span of Supervision

  • Competence of the supervisor
  • Competence and makeup of the subordinates
  • Amount and availability of help from staff specialists
  • Nature and importance of the activities performed
  • The dynamics and complexity of the activity to be performed
  • The degree to which a comprehensive set of standards and procedures are available to guide subordinates
  • Availability of self-directed teams 
 5.  What are the different Functions of Directing?  


Different functions of Directing are

  • It guides and helps the subordinates to complete the given task properly and as per schedule.
  • It provides the necessary motivation to subordinates to complete the work satisfactorily and strive to do them best.
  • It helps in maintaining discipline and rewarding those who do well.
  • Directing involves supervision, which is essential to make sure that work is performed according to the orders and instructions
  • Inspiring them to contribute towards the achievement of objectives.
  • Providing leadership and motivation.

 Essay Type Questions

1. Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy with its Criticism.
      Each individual has needs, or feelings of deficiency that drive their behavior
      Once a need is satisfied, then it is no longer motivating
      Needs are in a hierarchy that an individual moves up as they satisfy levels of needs

Levels of Needs
Physiological Needs: food, water, shelter
Security and Safety Needs: security, stability freedom from anxiety
Love and Social Needs: love, friendship, affection, and social interaction
Esteem Needs: achievement, prestige, status and power.
Self-Actualization Needs: soul searching and is inner-oriented

Criticism of Abraham Maslow's Need hierarchy theory

Maslow's theory has been subjected to a lot of criticism. Few important points in this regard are as follows-

1. Empirical research doesn't validate this theory.

2. The assertion that there are only 5 needs and that they are activated in a specific order have found limited support with the researchers and psychologists.

3. Maslow's model is much too rigid to explain the dynamic and unstable characteristic of employ needs.

4. Researchers have found that individual needs do not cluster neatly around the 5 types described in the theory. Also substantial satisfaction of one need level doesn't necessarily lead to the next higher need level.

5. The needs hierarchy is based on US cultural values which is basically individualistic. Outside USA, this theory has found little support. In countries such as China, Japan and Korea, which have collectivist cultures, belonging and security are significantly more important than growth or self-actualization. Therefore, although the needs that Maslow identified may be universal, the logic or sequence of the hierarchy differs from culture to culture.

6. Needs other than those identified by Maslow also motivate people – for e.g. spiritual needs.

7. People can also operate on more than one needs level simultaneously or may move to a lower level of needs if their life circumstances change. For e.g., during recession, when many jobs were cut, suddenly lower order needs became dominant over higher order needs.

In spite of so much criticism, Maslow's need hierarchy theory continues to be popular, perhaps due to its simplicity and ease of application.

2. Define and Discuss theory X and theory Y
In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y 

Theory X

Theory X assumes that the average person:
      Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it.
      Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead.
      Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals.
      Resists change.
      Is gullible and not particularly intelligent.

Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security.

Theory Y

The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated.

Theory Y makes the following general assumptions:
      Work can be as natural as play and rest.
      People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them.
      People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment.
      Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility.
      Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.

3. Define Communication and also discuss the communication process.

The word communication has been derived from the Latin word “Communist” which means common. This stands for sharing ideas in common, beside community.  Communication incorporates the concept of transfer information and exchange of messages, ideas, and understanding between people for the purpose of achieving common objectives.
¯  Definitions: It is two way process of exchanging ideas or information between human beings. (Murphy and Peck). It is an intercourse by words, letters, symbols, or messages and is a way that one organization member shares meanings and understand with others. (Koontz and O’Donnell). Communication is the sum of all things one person does involves systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. (Louisa Allen). Administrative communication is a process which involves a transition and accurate replication of ideas insured by feedback court the purpose of eliciting which will accomplish organizational goals.
¯  The communication process: Communication is a two way process in which there is an exchange and progression of ideas towards a mutually accepted direction or goals. It is essential that the basic elements of communication be identified. These elements are;
a.       Sender/encoder/speaker: Is the person who initiates the communication process. From his/her personal data he/she selects ideas, encodes, and finally transmits them to receivers.
b.      Message: Is the encoded idea transmitted by the sender. It consists of verbal and non-verbal symbols.
c.       Media or channel: Is important element of communication through which messages pass. It includes; face-to-face discussion, memorandum, magazines, radios, television, news paper, telephone. 
d.      Decoder: Is a person who receives and tries to make sense out of message. It is the decoder who assigns meanings to the ideas or messages transmitted by sender or encoder.
e.       Feedback: Is the most important component of communication. It begins when the receiver responds to the message and ends when his/her response has been decoded by the original sender. It is the reaction that the receiver has to a message. It helps to evaluate the effectiveness of the communication. It helps to improve future communication process. The communication process will also be affected by other factors that include;
a.       The code of the transmission of the message i.e. the symbols that carry the message can be; verbal, non-verbal, paralanguage.
b.      The frame of reference i.e. peoples’ attitude, culture, race, sex so on
c.       Noise: Refers to anything that interferes with the communication process and destroys and blocks the message. It can be external such as telephone call, talk of people, heat and other sounds, and internal such as receiver’s mental and physical condition, daydreaming, preoccupation, health problems etc.
 Sender IdeasEncoding Message Media Receiver Decoding Feedback.
4. Discuss the communication in an organisation.

Communication in an organization

1. Vertical communication: It is a communication that moves up and downward for the chain of command in the organization.

a. Downward communication: it is the message passed from the top management to the lower level of management. The purpose of downward communication is to inform, to advice, to instruct, to direct, and to evaluate employees.

b. Upward communication: it is the message passed from the lower level management to the upper level management. The purpose of upward communication is to supply information to upper level management, to report performed tasks, to give suggestions, to request for aid or decision, and resources.

2. Lateral or Horizontal communication: It is the communication process that transferred between the department of an organization that generally follows the work flow rather than chain of command. The purpose of lateral communication is to provide a direct channel for organization coordination and problem solving, to enable organizational members to form relationship with their peers, to slower of avoid the much slower procedure of communication.

3. Informal communication: It is a type of communication in an organization that is not effectively sanctioned. The most type of this communication is grapevine. It is formed and maintained by social relationship rather than the formal reporting relationship. it is fast and can penetrate the tightest security, it transmit information very rapidly in all direction through the organization and it is easily assess bile

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