Friday, 8 December 2017

DO's and Don't's in Precis Writing

Major Dos of English Precis:

a) Read through the whole passage and try to find out the central 
b) Make a note of the main points in the passage.
c) Give a suitable heading/title of your précis.
d) Write your precis in the third person, and the tense of the précis          should be the same as that of the passage.
e) Revise to see if you've missed any important points or not.
f)  Must follow the number of words as instructed in the question.

Major Don’t s of a Precis:
a) Do not express your own opinion, ideas, wish, remark or criticism.
b) Do not insert any question in your précis. Its significance, if essential, may be expressed by a statement.
c) Do not convey the ideas in the précis by incomplete sentence. Use Short & Crisp sentences instead.
d) Do not use telegraphic abbreviations. Avoid all slang also.
e) Do not be jerky. This suggests that most probably, you have not understood the sense of the passage properly.
f) Do not retain one or reject the other if two ideas are equally important. Either retain both or give that combined significance.
g) Do not copy directly from the passage.

Thursday, 7 December 2017

Sample of Note-Making

1.  On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it, in points only and also add         a suitable TITLE.

Occasional self-medication has always been part of normal living. The making and selling of drugs has a long history and is closely linked, like medical practice itself, with belief in magic. Only during the last hundred years or so, as the development of scientific techniques made it possible diagnosis has become possible. The doctor is now able to follow up the correct diagnosis of many illnesses-with specific treatment of their causes. In many other illnesses of which the causes remain unknown, he is still limited, like the unqualified prescriber, to the treatment of symptoms. The doctor is trained to decide when to treat symptoms only and when to attack the cause. This is the essential difference between medical prescribing and self-medication.
The advance of technology has brought about much progress in some fields of medicine, including the development of scientific drug therapy. In many countries public health organization is improving and people’s nutritional standards have risen. Parallel with such beneficial trends are two which have an adverse effect. One is the use of high pressure advertising by the pharmaceutical industry which has tended to influence both patients and doctors and has led to the overuse of drugs generally. The other is emergence of eating, insufficient sleep, excessive smoking and drinking. People with disorders arising from faulty habits such as these , as well as well from unhappy human relationships , often resort to self –medication and so add the taking of pharmaceuticals to the list .Advertisers go to great lengths to catch this market.
Clever advertising, aimed at chronic suffers who will try anything because doctors have not been able to cure them, can induce such faith in a preparation, particularly if steeply priced, that it will produce-by suggestion-a very real effect in some people .Advertisements are also aimed at people suffering from mild complaints such as simple cold and coughs which clear up by themselves within a short time.
These are the main reasons, why laxativesindigestion-remediespainkillerscough-mixtures, tonics, vitamin and iron tablets, nose drops, ointments and many other preparations are found in quantity in many households. It is doubtful whether taking these things ever improves a person’s health, it may even make it worse. Worse, because the preparation may contain unsuitable ingredients; worse because the taker may become dependent on them; worse because they might be taken excess; worse because they may cause poisoning , and worst of all because symptoms of some serious underlying cause may be asked and therefore medical help may not be sought. Self-diagnosis is a greater danger than self-medication.



1.   Self medicatiom differs from medical prescription.
         1.1 Part of normal living—last 100 yrs
         1.2 Advancement in diag tech..
         1.3 Drs rqd. for diag .&  treatmnt of disease

2.   Technological Advmnt in medicine
          2.1  drug therapy
          2.2 impvt. in pub. Health org’s
          2.3  increase in nutri’l standards.

3. Clever ads by pharma’l companies
        3.1 take advt of people’s need
                                    3.2 chronic suffers
                                    3.3 mild complaints viz cold and coughs.
4.   Dangers 
   4.1 Prep’n contain unsuitable things
   4.2 Taker becomes dependent

Monday, 4 December 2017

For No Dues Form and Hall Ticket

Dear Students

Come and collect the Hall Ticket after getting No Dues.

Complete this task on the 8th of December.

Head Department of Commerce

Sunday, 3 December 2017

Managemeng - Module 1

Unit I
1. Define Management

Management is the art of getting things done through people – Mary Parker Follet. To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate, and to control – Henry Fayol.

2.What is administration?
Administration is concerned wit h laying down suitable policies for the whole concern.

3.Is administration an art or a science?
Management is both an art and s cience.

4.What are the three levels of  management?
  1. Top-level management
  2. Middle level managemen t
  3. Bottom level managemen t.
5.What is scalar chain?
Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. The President p ossesses the most

authority; the first line supervis or the least. Lower level managers should al ways keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar(hierarchical) chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful.

6.What is espirit de corps?

Spirit de corps means spirit of co-operation.since union is strength,har mony and team work are essential . Managem ent should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees.

7.Define stability of tenure?

Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of managem ent. Recruitment and Selection Costs, as well as increased product-reject rates are usually assoc iated with hiring new workers.

8.What is “Gang Plank”?



Line of authority must flow in a downward flow from the highest authority to the worker at the bottom level. To avoid delay, such a direct contact, as the one between E and I is what is referred to as ‘Gang Plank’ which is indicated by the line in the diagram.

9.What is meant by unity of direction?
The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in a common direction.

10.Give the functions of management. The functions of management are:

1)      Planning
2)      Organizing
3)      Staffing
4)      Leading
5)      Controlling.
11.  Who is known as father of modern operation of management theory?
Henry Fayol is known as father of modern operation of management theory.

12.  State any two Henry Fayol’s principles of theory.
1)      Division of work
2)      Authority and responsibility
3)      Discipline
4)      Unity of command

PART-B(7 marks)
1.What are the differences between administration and management?


All  policy  decisions  are  made
It is concerned with the implementation

by the administration.

of the policies. Certain routine decisions

may be made by the managers on less
the  owners

important matters.

of the concern.

Managers are the paid employees of the


Managers    actually    work    for    the



remuneration they get. They direct their

prospects and so on.

efforts  towards  the  attainment  of  the

goal set by administration.
Administrators do not take part
The  mangers  are  responsible  to  the

in  the  daily  activities  of  the

administrators  on  the  daily  work  done


in the concern.

Management   is   not   a   static   body.
almost   a

Managers  may  resign,  retire  or  may


even be removed from service.

change, therefore, takes place in
It is a lower-level function.


It is a top-level function

2.  Explain the functions of top management?
a.         Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise.

    1. It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc.


c.       It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise.
d.      It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers.
e.       It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments.
f.       It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world.
g.      It provides guidance and direction.

h.      The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.

3)Explain the functions of middle management?

i.        They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management.
j.        They make plans for the sub-units of the organization.
k.      They participate in employment & training of lower level management.
l.        They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level.

m.    They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department.
n.      It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management.
o.      They evaluate performance of junior managers.

p.      They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance.

4.  Explain the functions of low-level management?
a.         Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers.
    1. They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities.
    2. They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production.

    1. They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in the organization.

    1. They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers.
    2. They help to solve the grievances of the workers.
    3. They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates.
    4. They are responsible for providing training to the workers.
    5. They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc for getting the things done.
    6. They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers.
    7. They ensure discipline in the enterprise.
    8. They motivate workers.

    1. They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact with the workers.

PART-C (15 marks) 1.Describe the importance of management in business?

1)      Systematic approach to work: Planning, which is one of the important functions of management, provides for a systematic approach to work.

2)      Mobilization of the necessary resources: Every business needs men, machines, materials and money. The extent to which these resources are required and the proportion in which these are to be combined are taken care of by organizing which is yet another important function of management.


3)      Division of work: Management recognizes the need for division of work in any work place. The total work to be done is divided into different parts and each part is entrusted to a particular individual.

4)      Selection of the right man for the right job: Management gives utmost importance to the selection of the right man for the right job. The staffing function of management takes care of the issues concerning the recruitment and selection of employees.

5)      Manpower development: The candidates, who have been selected for the various jobs, may not have practical exposure to work.

6)      Inducement of workers: Another important role played by management is in the matter of motivating the employees of the organization. Motivation may be done by means of monetary as well as non/monetary measures. Even a word of appreciation may motivate an employee to work harder.

7)      Stability of tenure: Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and Selection Costs, as well as increased product-reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers.

8)      Integration of business activities: In a business a number of activities like purchase, production, marketing and sales take place. There are separate departments to look after these various activities.

9)      Performance of control: It is necessary for every business to find out whether what has been planned has been achieved at the end of the plan period. In other words, the deviations from the target need to be measured. Corrective action needs to be taken so that no such problem arises in future. Performance of control is also an important task of the m anger.

10)  Fulfillment of social obligations: every business is part and parcel of the society. The business derives all the benefits from the society and therefore, it owes certain duties towards the various sections of the society, namely, the shareholders, the creditors, the consumers, the employees, the competitors and the Government.

2. Explain the basic characteristics of management. (Or)

Explain the nature of management? 1) It is a universal activity

Management has relevance not only in business but also in household work, in army, in governmental activities and so on. The work can be done in a more systematic manner with the application of the techniques of management.

2)  It is goal oriented

Management focuses attention on the attainment of specific objectives. By making a proper forecast of the sales, by planning production, by fixing targets for the salesmen and by properly co-ordinating all the activities, the targeted level of sales can be achieved.

3)  It is an intellectual activity

The practice of management requires application of mind and intelligence. Management does not accept the hit or miss approach to work. The necessary resources have to be acquired. Work has to be assigned to different individuals and responsibilities have to be fixed on them.


4)  It is a process

Management is essentially a process consisting of various stages/.functions. planning is the starting point of management and control is its last stage. In between there are other functions like organizing, directing and co-ordinating.

5)  Management is both a science and an art

The practice of science needs knowledge of the theory as well as the formulae. On the other hand, the practice of art requires skill. Management is a social science. It focuses attention on the behavior of individuals and groups.

6)  It is a social process

Management deals with the behaviour of individuals and groups. In a work place, individuals work as a team.

7)  It adopts an integrated approach
The goal of an individual employee and that of his organization must synchronize.

8)  It is an on-going activity

Management is a continuous process. A stage will not be reached where one can say that management is irrelevant.

9)  It is intangible

Management is invisible. It cannot be seen. But it can be felt. The significance of management will become clear if a comparison is made.

10) Management is a profession

Like medical, law and engineering, management has also come to be recognized as a profession. He can provide consultancy services to businessmen on such areas as marketing, personnel or finance depending upon his area of specialization.

11) It  is a factor of production

Management is also considered as a factor of production just like land, labour, capital and enterprise.

3.Explain the various functions of management?

The important management function can be categorized into four major functions. These are - planning, organizing, leading and controlling.

1)      Planning

Planning is the management function that involves setting of goals and deciding the best method to achieve them.

Planning is most important and basic activity of management. The function also includes considering what must be done to encourage necessary levels of change and innovation. Planning provides a basis for the other major functions of management: organizing, leading and controlling. Manager with his subordinates sets the required goals, establishes the policies, standard methods, develops program strategies and schedules to achieve the goals.

2)      Organizing

Organizing is the management function that focuses on allocating and arranging human and non-human resources so that plans can be carried out successfully. Different tasks must be assigned to different people and their efforts must be co-ordinated.

This involves co-ordination of tasks and the various ways to accomplish it. In management process organizing function provides valuable tool for promoting innovation and facilitating needed changes.


3)      Staffing

The staffing function of management is concerned with the performance of the following activities:
(i)                 Recruitment and selection of employees
(ii)               Training
(iii)             Wage and salary administration
(iv)             Performance appraisal
(v)               Employee transfer, promotion, demotion and termination.
4)      Directing
(i)                 Undertaking supervision
(ii)               Issuing orders and instructions pertaining to work.
(iii)             Proper communication relationship between the management and the employees.
(iv)             Leadership – to guide employees.
5)      Co-ordinating
(i)                 Planning
(ii)               Rules and procedures
(iii)             Sound organization – proper use of hierarchy
(iv)             Effective communication
6)      Controlling

Controlling is the management function aimed at regulating organizational activities so that actual performance meets the expected objectives and standards of company.

For regulating organizational activity manager’s need to monitor ongoing activity, compare the results with standards and take the necessary corrective action.

4.      Explain the contributions of Henry Fayol?

The other major contribution of Henry Fayol to the development of management thinking is principles of management. Fayol outlined a number of principles that he found useful in running his large organization.

He added that these principles apply not only to business but also to political, religious, philanthropic, military and other organizations. These principles are in widespread use today. The fourteen general principles of management are given below-

1)      Division of work
2)      Authority and responsibility
3)      Discipline
4)      Unity of command
5)      Unity of direction
6)      Subordination of individual interest to general interest
7)      Remuneration
8)      Centralization
9)      Scalar chain
10)    Order
11)  Equity
12)  Stability of personnel tenure
13)  Initiative

14)  Esprit de corps
The meaning and explanation of fourteen principles of management are as under:


1.      DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization.

2.      AUTHORITY: The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact

obedience.  Responsibility  involves  being  accountable,  and  is  therefore  naturally



DISCIPLINE:  A  successful  organization  requires  the  common  effort  of  workers.



UNITY   OF   COMMAND:   Workers   should   receive   orders
only   one


5.      UNITY OF DIRECTION: The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in a common direction.

6.      SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO THE GENERAL INTERESTS: The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole.

7.      REMUNERATION: Many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining a worker’s rate of pay.

8.      CENTRALIZATION: Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is


9.      SCALAR CHAIN: Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. The President possesses the most authority; the first line supervisor the least. Lower level managers should always keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar(hierarchical) chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful.
the    sake    of
all    materials

and  people  related  to  a  specific  kind  of  work  should  be  treated  as  equally  as




12.  STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL: Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and Selection Costs, as well as

increased product-reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers.

13. INITIATIVE: Management should take steps to encourage worker initiative, which is defined as new or additional work activity undertaken through self direction.

14.  ESPIRIT DE CORPS: Management should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees.


5. Is management an art or science? Explain. Management as an art

1)      Creative: Managers have to come with creative ideas or solutions to handle unique business problems.

2)      Individual approach: Every manager need to adopt his individual approach of managing to handle situations.

3)      Application and dedication: Management requires not only skills and knowledge but there is also a need for discipline, dedication and commitment.

4)      Initiative: Managers are like artists take the initiative in doing the right things at tight time. This helps to accomplish objectives more effectively and efficiently.

5)      Intelligence: Managers should possess mental intelligence, social intelligence, inter personal intelligence and emotional intelligence.

Management as a science

1)      Systematic decision making: management stars with the process of systematic decisions. Before taking any right decisions right information from right source and at right source and at right time is to be collected. This process has to be followed systematically.

2)      Situational output: the output of management process may vary without change in input. This is possible by providing some resource, tolls, incentive and by motivation.

3)      Universal management process: in all management organizations whether large or small, and at all levels, follows the same management process. The management process includes – planning, organizing, directing and controlling activities.

4)      Universally accepted management principles: like science, the principles of management are universally accepted. These principles are accepted by all successful organizations. Management principles include – division of work, unity of command, discipline, scalar chain etc.

Therefore it can be concluded that management is an art as well as science.