Monday, 16 October 2017

What is a Precis ?
A precise is like a summary of a given  passage: it holds the absolute essential points accompanied with the mood and tone of the author of the passage. The one aspect one must be careful about is that one should not add any external information outside the passage and should try to retain the original author’s voice and opinions. As far as the writing style is concerned, one must ensure that one write clear and effective sentences (no rambling) and one’s diction is flawless. Unnecessarily long sentences or confused thoughts are not required in précis writing, and one should make sure that one sifts from one point to another in a smooth matter. At the end of the day, the précis should make sense and be logical in its presentation.
While keeping the above in mind, you need to keep in mind what a precis is not. The following are some of things that should not be a part of or a reflection of the precis:
Ø  Simply a summary of a passage.
Ø  simply an abstract of a passage.
Ø  An outline of a passage.
Ø  A mere selection of a few important sentences from a passage.
Ø  A collection of disconnected facts and statements.
Features of a Good Precis
                                                     A  good Precis:
Ø  must having a TITLE
Ø  is marked by clarity, brevity and precision.
Ø  is not just lifting of the sentences from the original. It should be written in the precis writer's own words.
Ø  is a small version of the original passage.
Ø  must have a logical order and be well-knit and well connected.
Ø  must have reason; must use linking devices such as so, therefore, and, because further etc.
Ø   and must follow the order of ideas of the original.
Ø  must have a title.
Ø  is written in reported speech.
Ø  must not contain any details not found in the original.
Don'ts in a précis:
Ø Do not express your own opinion, wish, remark or criticism.
Ø Do not insert any question in your précis. Its significance, if essential, may be expressed by a statement.
Ø Do not use abbreviations or contractions.

Ø Do not use informal words. This suggests that most probably, you have not understood the sense of the passage properly.

Images on Mr. Pyecraft

The Truth about Pyecraft by H.G WELLS


The Truth about Pyecraft
He sits not a dozen yards away. If I glance over my shoulder I can see him. And if I catch his eye--and usually I catch his eye-- it meets me with an expression.
It is mainly an imploring look--and yet with suspicion in it.
Confound his suspicion! If I wanted to tell on him I should have told long ago. I don't tell and I don't tell, and he ought to feel at his ease. As if anything so gross and fat as he could feel at ease! Who would believe me if I did tell?
Poor old Pyecraft! Great, uneasy jelly of substance! The fattest clubman in London.
He sits at one of the little club tables in the huge bay by the fire, stuffing. What is he stuffing? I glance judiciously and catch him biting at a round of hot buttered tea-cake, with his eyes on me. Confound him!--with his eyes on me!
That settles it, Pyecraft! Since you will be abject, since you will behave as though I was not a man of honour, here, right under your embedded eyes, I write the thing down--the plain truth about Pyecraft. The man I helped, the man I shielded, and who has requited me by making my club unendurable, absolutely unendurable, with his liquid appeal, with the perpetual "don't tell" of his looks.
And, besides, why does he keep on eternally eating?
Well, here goes for the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth!
Pyecraft--. I made the acquaintance of Pyecraft in this very smoking- room. I was a young, nervous new member, and he saw it. I was sitting all alone, wishing I knew more of the members, and suddenly he came, a great rolling front of chins and abdomina, towards me, and grunted and sat down in a chair close by me and wheezed for a space, and scraped for a space with a match and lit a cigar, and then addressed me. I forget what he said--something about the matches not lighting properly, and afterwards as he talked he kept stopping the waiters one by one as they went by, and telling them about the matches in that thin, fluty voice he has. But, anyhow, it was in some such way we began our talking.
He talked about various things and came round to games. And thence to my figure and complexion. "You ought to be a good cricketer," he said. I suppose I am slender, slender to what some people would call lean, and I suppose I am rather dark, still--I am not ashamed of having a Hindu great-grandmother, but, for all that, I don't want casual strangers to see through me at a glance to her. So that I was set against Pyecraft from the beginning.
But he only talked about me in order to get to himself.
"I expect," he said, "you take no more exercise than I do, and probably you eat no less." (Like all excessively obese people he fancied he ate nothing.) "Yet,"--and he smiled an oblique smile-- "we differ."
And then he began to talk about his fatness and his fatness; all he did for his fatness and all he was going to do for his fatness; what people had advised him to do for his fatness and what he had heard of people doing for fatness similar to his. "A priori," he said, "one would think a question of nutrition could be answered by dietary and a question of assimilation by drugs." It was stifling. It was dumpling talk. It made me feel swelled to hear him.
One stands that sort of thing once in a way at a club, but a time came when I fancied I was standing too much. He took to me altogether too conspicuously. I could never go into the smoking-room but he would come wallowing towards me, and sometimes he came and gormandised round and about me while I had my lunch. He seemed at times almost to be clinging to me. He was a bore, but not so fearful a bore as to be limited to me; and from the first there was something in his manner--almost as though he knew, almost as though he penetrated to the fact that I might--that there was a remote, exceptional chance in me that no one else presented.
"I'd give anything to get it down," he would say--"anything," and peer at me over his vast cheeks and pant.
Poor old Pyecraft! He has just gonged, no doubt to order another buttered tea-cake!
He came to the actual thing one day. "Our Pharmacopoeia," he said, "our Western Pharmacopoeia, is anything but the last word of medical science. In the East, I've been told--"
He stopped and stared at me. It was like being at an aquarium.
I was quite suddenly angry with him. "Look here," I said, "who told you about my great-grandmother's recipes?"
"Well," he fenced.
"Every time we've met for a week," I said, "and we've met pretty often--you've given me a broad hint or so about that little secret of mine."
"Well," he said, "now the cat's out of the bag, I'll admit, yes, it is so. I had it--"
"From Pattison?"
"Indirectly," he said, which I believe was lying, "yes."
"Pattison," I said, "took that stuff at his own risk."
He pursed his mouth and bowed.
"My great-grandmother's recipes," I said, "are queer things to handle. My father was near making me promise--"
"He didn't?"
"No. But he warned me. He himself used one--once."
"Ah! . . . But do you think--? Suppose--suppose there did happen to be one--"
"The things are curious documents," I said.
"Even the smell of 'em. . . . No!"
But after going so far Pyecraft was resolved I should go farther. I was always a little afraid if I tried his patience too much he would fall on me suddenly and smother me. I own I was weak. But I was also annoyed with Pyecraft. I had got to that state of feeling for him that disposed me to say, "Well, take the risk!" The little affair of Pattison to which I have alluded was a different matter altogether. What it was doesn't concern us now, but I knew, anyhow, that the particular recipe I used then was safe. The rest I didn't know so much about, and, on the whole, I was inclined to doubt their safety pretty completely.
Yet even if Pyecraft got poisoned--
I must confess the poisoning of Pyecraft struck me as an immense undertaking.
That evening I took that queer, odd-scented sandalwood box out of my safe and turned the rustling skins over. The gentleman who wrote the recipes for my great-grandmother evidently had a weakness for skins of a miscellaneous origin, and his handwriting was cramped to the last degree. Some of the things are quite unreadable to me--though my family, with its Indian Civil Service associations, has kept up a knowledge of Hindustani from generation to generation--and none are absolutely plain sailing. But I found the one that I knew was there soon enough, and sat on the floor by my safe for some time looking at it.
"Look here," said I to Pyecraft next day, and snatched the slip away from his eager grasp.
"So far as I--can make it out, this is a recipe for Loss of Weight. ("Ah!" said Pyecraft.) I'm not absolutely sure, but I think it's that. And if you take my advice you'll leave it alone. Because, you know-- I blacken my blood in your interest, Pyecraft--my ancestors on that side were, so far as I can gather, a jolly queer lot. See?"
"Let me try it," said Pyecraft.
I leant back in my chair. My imagination made one mighty effort and fell flat within me. "What in Heaven's name, Pyecraft," I asked, "do you think you'll look like when you get thin?"
He was impervious to reason. I made him promise never to say a word to me about his disgusting fatness again whatever happened--never, and then I handed him that little piece of skin.
"It's nasty stuff," I said.
"No matter," he said, and took it.
He goggled at it. "But--but--" he said.
He had just discovered that it wasn't English.
"To the best of my ability," I said, "I will do you a translation."
I did my best. After that we didn't speak for a fortnight. Whenever he approached me I frowned and motioned him away, and he respected our compact, but at the end of a fortnight he was as fat as ever. And then he got a word in.
"I must speak," he said. "It isn't fair. There's something wrong. It's done me no good. You're not doing your great-grandmother justice."
"Where's the recipe?"
He produced it gingerly from his pocket-book.
I ran my eye over the items. "Was the egg addled?" I asked.
"No. Ought it to have been?"
"That," I said, "goes without saying in all my poor dear great-grandmother's recipes. When condition or quality is not specified you must get the worst. She was drastic or nothing. . . . And there's one or two possible alternatives to some of these other things. You got fresh rattlesnake venom."
"I got a rattlesnake from Jamrach's. It cost--it cost--"
"That's your affair, anyhow. This last item--"
"I know a man who--"
"Yes. H'm. Well, I'll write the alternatives down. So far as I know the language, the spelling of this recipe is particularly atrocious. By-the-bye, dog here probably means pariah dog."
For a month after that I saw Pyecraft constantly at the club and as fat and anxious as ever. He kept our treaty, but at times he broke the spirit of it by shaking his head despondently. Then one day in the cloakroom he said, "Your great-grandmother--"
"Not a word against her," I said; and he held his peace.
I could have fancied he had desisted, and I saw him one day talking to three new members about his fatness as though he was in search of other recipes. And then, quite unexpectedly, his telegram came.
"Mr. Formalyn!" bawled a page-boy under my nose, and I took the telegram and opened it at once.
"For Heaven's sake come.--Pyecraft."
"H'm," said I, and to tell the truth I was so pleased at the rehabilitation of my great grandmother's reputation this evidently promised that I made a most excellent lunch.
I got Pyecraft's address from the hall porter. Pyecraft inhabited the upper half of a house in Bloomsbury, and I went there so soon as I had done my coffee and Trappistine. I did not wait to finish my cigar.
"Mr. Pyecraft?" said I, at the front door.
They believed he was ill; he hadn't been out for two days.
"He expects me," said I, and they sent me up.
I rang the bell at the lattice-door upon the landing.
"He shouldn't have tried it, anyhow," I said to myself. "A man who eats like a pig ought to look like a pig."
An obviously worthy woman, with an anxious face and a carelessly placed cap, came and surveyed me through the lattice.
I gave my name and she let me in in a dubious fashion.
"Well?" said I, as we stood together inside Pyecraft's piece of the landing.
"'E said you was to come in if you came," she said, and regarded me, making no motion to show me anywhere. And then, confidentially, "'E's locked in, sir."
"Locked in?"
"Locked himself in yesterday morning and 'asn't let any one in since, sir. And ever and again swearing. Oh, my!"
I stared at the door she indicated by her glances.
"In there?" I said.
"Yes, sir."
"What's up?"
She shook her head sadly, "'E keeps on calling for vittles, sir. 'eavy vittles 'e wants. I get 'im what I can. Pork 'e's 'ad, sooit puddin', sossiges, noo bread. Everythink like that. Left outside, if you please, and me go away. 'E's eatin', sir, somethink awful."
There came a piping bawl from inside the door: "That Formalyn?"
"That you, Pyecraft?" I shouted, and went and banged the door.
"Tell her to go away."
I did.
Then I could hear a curious pattering upon the door, almost like some one feeling for the handle in the dark, and Pyecraft's familiar grunts.
"It's all right," I said, "she's gone."
But for a long time the door didn't open.
I heard the key turn. Then Pyecraft's voice said, "Come in."
I turned the handle and opened the door. Naturally I expected to see Pyecraft.
Well, you know, he wasn't there!
I never had such a shock in my life. There was his sitting-room in a state of untidy disorder, plates and dishes among the books and writing things, and several chairs overturned, but Pyecraft--
"It's all right, o' man; shut the door," he said, and then I discovered him.
There he was right up close to the cornice in the corner by the door, as though some one had glued him to the ceiling. His face was anxious and angry. He panted and gesticulated. "Shut the door," he said. "If that woman gets hold of it--"
I shut the door, and went and stood away from him and stared.
"If anything gives way and you tumble down," I said, "you'll break your neck, Pyecraft."
"I wish I could," he wheezed.
"A man of your age and weight getting up to kiddish gymnastics--"
"Don't," he said, and looked agonised.
"I'll tell you," he said, and gesticulated.
"How the deuce," said I, "are you holding on up there?"
And then abruptly I realised that he was not holding on at all, that he was floating up there--just as a gas-filled bladder might have floated in the same position. He began a struggle to thrust himself away from the ceiling and to clamber down the wall to me. "It's that prescription," he panted, as he did so. "Your great-gran--"
He took hold of a framed engraving rather carelessly as he spoke and it gave way, and he flew back to the ceiling again, while the picture smashed onto the sofa. Bump he went against the ceiling, and I knew then why he was all over white on the more salient curves and angles of his person. He tried again more carefully, coming down by way of the mantel.
It was really a most extraordinary spectacle, that great, fat, apoplectic-looking man upside down and trying to get from the ceiling to the floor. "That prescription," he said. "Too successful."
"Loss of weight--almost complete."
And then, of course, I understood.
"By Jove, Pyecraft," said I, "what you wanted was a cure for fatness! But you always called it weight. You would call it weight."
Somehow I was extremely delighted. I quite liked Pyecraft for the time. "Let me help you!" I said, and took his hand and pulled him down. He kicked about, trying to get a foothold somewhere. It was very like holding a flag on a windy day.
"That table," he said, pointing, "is solid mahogany and very heavy. If you can put me under that---"
I did, and there he wallowed about like a captive balloon, while I stood on his hearthrug and talked to him.
I lit a cigar. "Tell me," I said, "what happened?"
"I took it," he said.
"How did it taste?"
"Oh, beastly!"
I should fancy they all did. Whether one regards the ingredients or the probable compound or the possible results, almost all of my great-grandmother's remedies appear to me at least to be extraordinarily uninviting. For my own part--
"I took a little sip first."
"And as I felt lighter and better after an hour, I decided to take the draught."
"My dear Pyecraft!"
"I held my nose," he explained. "And then I kept on getting lighter and lighter--and helpless, you know."
He gave way to a sudden burst of passion. "What the goodness am I to do?" he said.
"There's one thing pretty evident," I said, "that you mustn't do. If you go out of doors, you'll go up and up." I waved an arm upward. "They'd have to send Santos-Dumont after you to bring you down again."
"I suppose it will wear off?"
I shook my head. "I don't think you can count on that," I said.
And then there was another burst of passion, and he kicked out at adjacent chairs and banged the floor. He behaved just as I should have expected a great, fat, self-indulgent man to behave under trying circumstances--that is to say, very badly. He spoke of me and my great-grandmother with an utter want of discretion.
"I never asked you to take the stuff," I said.
And generously disregarding the insults he was putting upon me, I sat down in his armchair and began to talk to him in a sober, friendly fashion.
I pointed out to him that this was a trouble he had brought upon himself, and that it had almost an air of poetical justice. He had eaten too much. This he disputed, and for a time we argued the point.
He became noisy and violent, so I desisted from this aspect of his lesson. "And then," said I, "you committed the sin of euphuism. You called it not Fat, which is just and inglorious, but Weight. You--"
He interrupted to say he recognised all that. What was he to do?
I suggested he should adapt himself to his new conditions. So we came to the really sensible part of the business. I suggested that it would not be difficult for him to learn to walk about on the ceiling with his hands--
"I can't sleep," he said.
But that was no great difficulty. It was quite possible, I pointed out, to make a shake-up under a wire mattress, fasten the under things on with tapes, and have a blanket, sheet, and coverlet to button at the side. He would have to confide in his housekeeper, I said; and after some squabbling he agreed to that. (Afterwards it was quite delightful to see the beautifully matter-of-fact way with which the good lady took all these amazing inversions.) He could have a library ladder in his room, and all his meals could be laid on the top of his bookcase. We also hit on an ingenious device by which he could get to the floor whenever he wanted, which was simply to put the British Encyclopaedia (tenth edition) on the top of his open shelves. He just pulled out a couple of volumes and held on, and down he came. And we agreed there must be iron staples along the skirting, so that he could cling to those whenever he wanted to get about the room on the lower level.
As we got on with the thing I found myself almost keenly interested. It was I who called in the housekeeper and broke matters to her, and it was I chiefly who fixed up the inverted bed. In fact, I spent two whole days at his flat. I am a handy, interfering sort of man with a screw-driver, and I made all sorts of ingenious adaptations for him--ran a wire to bring his bells within reach, turned all his electric lights up instead of down, and so on. The whole affair was extremely curious and interesting to me, and it was delightful to think of Pyecraft like some great, fat blow-fly, crawling about on his ceiling and clambering round the lintels of his doors from one room to another, and never, never, never coming to the club any more. . . .
Then, you know, my fatal ingenuity got the better of me. I was sitting by his fire drinking his whisky, and he was up in his favourite corner by the cornice, tacking a Turkey carpet to the ceiling, when the idea struck me. "By Jove, Pyecraft!" I said, "all this is totally unnecessary."
And before I could calculate the complete consequences of my notion I blurted it out. "Lead underclothing," said I, and the mischief was done.
Pyecraft received the thing almost in tears. "To be right ways up again--" he said. I gave him the whole secret before I saw where it would take me. "Buy sheet lead," I said, "stamp it into discs. Sew 'em all over your underclothes until you have enough. Have lead-soled boots, carry a bag of solid lead, and the thing is done! Instead of being a prisoner here you may go abroad again, Pyecraft; you may travel--"
A still happier idea came to me. "You need never fear a shipwreck. All you need do is just slip off some or all of your clothes, take the necessary amount of luggage in your hand, and float up in the air--"
In his emotion he dropped the tack-hammer within an ace of my head. "By Jove!" he said, "I shall be able to come back to the club again."
The thing pulled me up short. "By Jove!" I said faintly. "Yes. Of course--you will."
He did. He does. There he sits behind me now, stuffing--as I live!-- a third go of buttered tea-cake. And no one in the whole world knows-- except his housekeeper and me--that he weighs practically nothing; that he is a mere boring mass of assimilatory matter, mere clouds in clothing, niente, nefas, the most inconsiderable of men. There he sits watching until I have done this writing. Then, if he can, he will waylay me. He will come billowing up to me. . . .
He will tell me over again all about it, how it feels, how it doesn't feel, how he sometimes hopes it is passing off a little. And always somewhere in that fat, abundant discourse he will say, "The secret's keeping, eh? If any one knew of it--I should be so ashamed. . . . Makes a fellow look such a fool, you know. Crawling about on a ceiling and all that. . . ."
And now to elude Pyecraft, occupying, as he does, an admirable strategic position between me and the door.

Sunday, 8 October 2017

Chapter 4: Directing

A.        Short Answer Question

1.      Define Directing. 
Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability.

2.      Mention the four elements of directing? 
Four elements of directing are:
a.       Supervision
b.      Communication
c.       Motivation
d.      Leadership

3.    Define Supervision.
            It implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work& workers.

4.    What is Communication in organisation?
Communication incorporates the concept of transfer information and exchange of messages, ideas, and understanding between people for the purpose of achieving common objectives.

5.    What is Motivation?


It means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with passion to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.

6.     Define Leadership.


It may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.

7.    What is Span of Management?


It is the number of subordinates that a manager directs and supervises. The number of subordinates varies from manager to manager. It is also called span of control and span of supervision.

8.     What is effective communication?


            Effective communication helps in molding attitudes and building up employees’ morale.   It improves managerial efficiency and ensures cooperation of the staff.

9.     What is informal Communication?


            It is formed and maintained by social relationship rather than the formal reporting relationship. The most type of this communication is grapevine

Explanatory type question

1. Differences between Direction / Supervising


Directing (Wide)

Supervising (Narrow)

It includes motivation, communication, supervision, training & leadership.

It is only one of the elements of direction.

Direction is generally at top level.

It is restricted to the lower level management.

Generally, direction is related to supervision which is the intermediate link between the workers and management
He has to deal, guide and lead workers directly under his commands.

Direction being at the top level, formulates polices and takes important decision
Supervision at lower level only for implementation.
Financial & non financial incentives.
It cannot provide incentives but if can only recommend rewards in special case.

Leads the efforts of medium and lower Level executives.

Efforts of employee under his commands.


2. What are the important characteristics of directing?


      Direction has got following characteristics:

  1. Pervasive Function - Directing is required at all levels of organization. Every manager provides guidance and inspiration to his subordinates.

  1. Continuous Activity - Direction is a continuous activity as it continuous throughout the life of organization.

  1. Human Factor - Directing function is related to subordinates and therefore it is related to human factor. Since human factor is complex and behaviour is unpredictable, direction function becomes important.

  1. Creative Activity - Direction function helps in converting plans into performance. Without this function, people become inactive and physical resources are meaningless

  1. Executive Function - Direction function is carried out by all managers and executives at all levels throughout the working of an enterprise, a subordinate receives instructions from his superior only.
3. What are the important principles in direction?


1.      Delegate Function - Direction is supposed to be a function dealing with human beings. Human behaviour is unpredictable by nature and conditioning the people’s behaviour towards the goals of the enterprise is what the executive does in this function. Therefore, it is termed as having delicacy

2.      It Initiates Actions - Directions is the function which is the starting point of the work performance of subordinates. It is from this function the action takes place; subordinates understand their jobs and do according to the instructions laid. Whatever are plans laid, can be implemented only once the actual work starts. It is there that direction becomes beneficial. 

3.      It Integrates Efforts - Through direction, the superiors are able to guide, inspire and instruct the subordinates to work. For this, efforts of every individual towards accomplishment of goals are required. It is through direction the efforts of every department can be related and integrated with others.

4.      Means of Motivation - Direction function helps in achievement of goals. A manager makes use of the element of motivation here to improve the performances of subordinates.

5.      It Provides Stability - Stability and balance in concern becomes very important for long term sun survival in the market. Stability is very important since that is an index of growth of an enterprise. Therefore a manager can use of all the four traits in him so that performance standards can be maintained. 

6.      Coping up with the changes - It is a human behaviour that human beings show resistance to change. Adaptability with changing environment helps in sustaining planned growth and becoming a market leader. 

7.      Efficient Utilization of Resources - Direction finance helps in clarifying the role of every subordinate towards his work. The resources can be utilized properly only when less of wastages, duplication of efforts, overlapping of performances, etc. doesn’t take place.

4. What are the Factors that determining the Span of Supervision? 

Following are the factors that determining the Span of Supervision

  • Competence of the supervisor
  • Competence and makeup of the subordinates
  • Amount and availability of help from staff specialists
  • Nature and importance of the activities performed
  • The dynamics and complexity of the activity to be performed
  • The degree to which a comprehensive set of standards and procedures are available to guide subordinates
  • Availability of self-directed teams 
 5.  What are the different Functions of Directing?  


Different functions of Directing are

  • It guides and helps the subordinates to complete the given task properly and as per schedule.
  • It provides the necessary motivation to subordinates to complete the work satisfactorily and strive to do them best.
  • It helps in maintaining discipline and rewarding those who do well.
  • Directing involves supervision, which is essential to make sure that work is performed according to the orders and instructions
  • Inspiring them to contribute towards the achievement of objectives.
  • Providing leadership and motivation.

 Essay Type Questions

1. Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy with its Criticism.
      Each individual has needs, or feelings of deficiency that drive their behavior
      Once a need is satisfied, then it is no longer motivating
      Needs are in a hierarchy that an individual moves up as they satisfy levels of needs

Levels of Needs
Physiological Needs: food, water, shelter
Security and Safety Needs: security, stability freedom from anxiety
Love and Social Needs: love, friendship, affection, and social interaction
Esteem Needs: achievement, prestige, status and power.
Self-Actualization Needs: soul searching and is inner-oriented

Criticism of Abraham Maslow's Need hierarchy theory

Maslow's theory has been subjected to a lot of criticism. Few important points in this regard are as follows-

1. Empirical research doesn't validate this theory.

2. The assertion that there are only 5 needs and that they are activated in a specific order have found limited support with the researchers and psychologists.

3. Maslow's model is much too rigid to explain the dynamic and unstable characteristic of employ needs.

4. Researchers have found that individual needs do not cluster neatly around the 5 types described in the theory. Also substantial satisfaction of one need level doesn't necessarily lead to the next higher need level.

5. The needs hierarchy is based on US cultural values which is basically individualistic. Outside USA, this theory has found little support. In countries such as China, Japan and Korea, which have collectivist cultures, belonging and security are significantly more important than growth or self-actualization. Therefore, although the needs that Maslow identified may be universal, the logic or sequence of the hierarchy differs from culture to culture.

6. Needs other than those identified by Maslow also motivate people – for e.g. spiritual needs.

7. People can also operate on more than one needs level simultaneously or may move to a lower level of needs if their life circumstances change. For e.g., during recession, when many jobs were cut, suddenly lower order needs became dominant over higher order needs.

In spite of so much criticism, Maslow's need hierarchy theory continues to be popular, perhaps due to its simplicity and ease of application.

2. Define and Discuss theory X and theory Y
In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y 

Theory X

Theory X assumes that the average person:
      Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it.
      Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead.
      Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals.
      Resists change.
      Is gullible and not particularly intelligent.

Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security.

Theory Y

The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated.

Theory Y makes the following general assumptions:
      Work can be as natural as play and rest.
      People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them.
      People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment.
      Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility.
      Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.

3. Define Communication and also discuss the communication process.

The word communication has been derived from the Latin word “Communist” which means common. This stands for sharing ideas in common, beside community.  Communication incorporates the concept of transfer information and exchange of messages, ideas, and understanding between people for the purpose of achieving common objectives.
¯  Definitions: It is two way process of exchanging ideas or information between human beings. (Murphy and Peck). It is an intercourse by words, letters, symbols, or messages and is a way that one organization member shares meanings and understand with others. (Koontz and O’Donnell). Communication is the sum of all things one person does involves systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. (Louisa Allen). Administrative communication is a process which involves a transition and accurate replication of ideas insured by feedback court the purpose of eliciting which will accomplish organizational goals.
¯  The communication process: Communication is a two way process in which there is an exchange and progression of ideas towards a mutually accepted direction or goals. It is essential that the basic elements of communication be identified. These elements are;
a.       Sender/encoder/speaker: Is the person who initiates the communication process. From his/her personal data he/she selects ideas, encodes, and finally transmits them to receivers.
b.      Message: Is the encoded idea transmitted by the sender. It consists of verbal and non-verbal symbols.
c.       Media or channel: Is important element of communication through which messages pass. It includes; face-to-face discussion, memorandum, magazines, radios, television, news paper, telephone. 
d.      Decoder: Is a person who receives and tries to make sense out of message. It is the decoder who assigns meanings to the ideas or messages transmitted by sender or encoder.
e.       Feedback: Is the most important component of communication. It begins when the receiver responds to the message and ends when his/her response has been decoded by the original sender. It is the reaction that the receiver has to a message. It helps to evaluate the effectiveness of the communication. It helps to improve future communication process. The communication process will also be affected by other factors that include;
a.       The code of the transmission of the message i.e. the symbols that carry the message can be; verbal, non-verbal, paralanguage.
b.      The frame of reference i.e. peoples’ attitude, culture, race, sex so on
c.       Noise: Refers to anything that interferes with the communication process and destroys and blocks the message. It can be external such as telephone call, talk of people, heat and other sounds, and internal such as receiver’s mental and physical condition, daydreaming, preoccupation, health problems etc.
 Sender IdeasEncoding Message Media Receiver Decoding Feedback.
4. Discuss the communication in an organisation.

Communication in an organization

1. Vertical communication: It is a communication that moves up and downward for the chain of command in the organization.

a. Downward communication: it is the message passed from the top management to the lower level of management. The purpose of downward communication is to inform, to advice, to instruct, to direct, and to evaluate employees.

b. Upward communication: it is the message passed from the lower level management to the upper level management. The purpose of upward communication is to supply information to upper level management, to report performed tasks, to give suggestions, to request for aid or decision, and resources.

2. Lateral or Horizontal communication: It is the communication process that transferred between the department of an organization that generally follows the work flow rather than chain of command. The purpose of lateral communication is to provide a direct channel for organization coordination and problem solving, to enable organizational members to form relationship with their peers, to slower of avoid the much slower procedure of communication.

3. Informal communication: It is a type of communication in an organization that is not effectively sanctioned. The most type of this communication is grapevine. It is formed and maintained by social relationship rather than the formal reporting relationship. it is fast and can penetrate the tightest security, it transmit information very rapidly in all direction through the organization and it is easily assess bile